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Phases of Throwing

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Topic updated on 01/08/14 10:34am
Phases of Throwing

  • There are 5 main phases of throwing
    • wind up (see below)
    • cocking
    • acceleration
    • deceleration
    • follow-through 
  • Biomechanics
    • scapula must work in concert with humerus to maintain glenohumeral stability
    • the entire throwing motion takes approximately 2 seconds
      • with wind up and acceleration phases taking approximately 75% of time (1.5 seconds)
1. Wind Up
  • Description
    • minimal force on the shoulder during first stage
  • Muscle activity
    • rotator cuff muscles are inactive during this phase
2. Cocking
  • Sometimes described as 2 sub-phases
    • early cocking
      • peak muscle activation
        • deltoid
    • late cocking
      • high torque phase with maximal shoulder external rotation
      • peak muscle activation
        • supraspinatus
        • infraspinatus
        • teres minor
  • Associated pathology
    • internal Impingement 
    • GIRD (glenohumeral internal rotation defect) 
3. Acceleration
  • Description
    • rotates ball to release point
  • Muscle activity
    • early muscle activation
      • triceps
    • late muscle activation 
      • pectoralis major
      • latissimus dorsi
      • serratus anterior  
4. Deceleration
  • Description
    • center of gravity moves over plantar foot
  • Muscle activity
    • eccentric contraction of all muscles is required to slow down arm motion
    • highest torque phase
  • Associated pathology
    • recognized as the most harmful phase of throwing
    • associated injuries
      • superior labrum (SLAP lesion) 
      • biceps tendon injury 
      • brachialis injury
      • teres minor injury
5. Follow-through
  • Description
    • phase where body rebalances and stops forward motion
  • Muscle activity
    • muscle activity returns to resting levels

 

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(OBQ11.107) Which of the following is true of the scapula during an overhead throwing motion? Topic Review Topic

1. It maximally retracts on ball release
2. It protracts during late cocking to prevent impingment on the rotator cuff
3. It must rotate in the cocking and acceleration phases to prevent impingement on the rotator cuff
4. It must remain fixed during the throwing motion to impart maximal energy
5. It has no effect on concavity-compression

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