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Suprascapular Neuropathy

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Topic updated on 03/19/16 3:50pm
Introduction
  • Can be caused by
    • suprascapular notch entrapment
      • weakness of both supraspinatus and infraspinatus 
    • spinoglenoid notch entrapment
      • weakness of infraspinatus only   
Anatomy
  • Suprascapular nerve (C5,C6) 
    • emerges off superior trunk (C5,C6) of brachial plexus  
    • travels across posterior triangle of neck to scapula
    • innervates 
      • supraspinatus 
      • infraspinatus 
  • Suprascapular ligament
    • arises from medial base of coracoid and overlies suprascapular notch
      • suprascapular artery runs above
      • suprascapular nerve runs below
  • Spinoglenoid ligament
    • arises near spinoglenoid notch
      • overlies distal suprascapular nerve 
Suprascapular notch entrapment
  • Introduction
    • proximal compression of suprascapular nerve in the suprascapular notch 
      • leads to weakness of both supraspinatus and infraspinatus
  • Pathoanatomy
    • compression can be from
      • ganglion cyst (often associated with labral tears)
      • transverse scapular ligament entrapment
      • fracture callus
  • Presentation
    • symptoms
      • deep, diffuse, posterolateral shoulder pain
    • physical exam
      • pain with palpation of suprascapular notch
      • weakness of supraspinatus
        • weakness seen with shoulder abduction to 90 degree, 30 degrees forward flexion, and with internal rotation (Jobe test positive) 
      • weakness of infraspinatus
        • weakness to external rotation with elbow at side
      • atrophy along the posterior scapula 
  • Evaluation
    • MRI
      • important to identify a compressive mass with associated cys
    • EMG/NCV
      • diagnostic
  • Treatment
    • nonoperative
      • activity modification and organized shoulder rehab program 
        • indications
          • no structural lesion seen on MRI
        • technique
          • rehab should be performed for a minimum of six months
    • operative
      • surgical nerve decompression at suprascapular notch 
        • indications
          • structural lesion seen on MRI (cyst)
          • failure of extended nonoperative management (~ 1 year)
Spinoglenoid notch entrapment
  • Introduction
    • distal compression of suprascapular nerve 
      • affects infraspinatus only    
    • Pathoanatomy
      • compression can be due to
        • posterior labral tears causing a cyst  
        • spinoglenoid ligament
        • spinoglenoid notch ganglion 
        • traction injury (seen in 45% of volley ball players) 
  • Presentation
    • symptoms
      • deep, diffuse, posterolateral shoulder pain
    • physical exam
      • infraspinatus weakness  
        • weakness to external rotation with elbow at side
      • infraspinatus atrophy along the posterior scapula 
      • supraspinatus strength is normal
  • Evaluation
    • MRI
      • important to identify posterior labral lesions with associated cys
    • EMG/NCV
      • diagnostic
  • Treatment
    • nonoperative
      • activity modification and organized shoulder rehab program 
        • indications
          • no structural lesion seen on MRI
        • technique
          • posterior shoulder capsule stretching
    • operative
      • arthroscopic cyst decompression and labral repair
        • indications
          • labral lesion with associated cyst seen on MRI
      • spinoglenoid ligament release with nerve decompression 
        • indications
          • no structural lesion seen on MRI and failure of extended nonoperative management (~ 1 year)
        • technique
          • posterior approach commonly utilized
          • decompress nerve in spinoglenoid notch

 

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Qbank (10 Questions)

TAG
(SBQ07.51) A 34-year-old competitive weightlifter presents with increasing pain during bench pressing. His physical exam demonstrates slight weakness in external rotation. Radiographs are unremarkable. His MRI findings are seen in Figure A. Treatment should include which of the following? Topic Review Topic
FIGURES: A          

1. Refrain from weightlifting for a minimum of 6 weeks
2. Physical therapy with rotator cuff strengthening
3. Suprascapular cyst decompression
4. Infraspinatus rotator cuff repair and acromioplasty
5. Spinoglenoid cyst decompression with posterior labral repair

PREFERRED RESPONSE ▶
TAG
(OBQ12.24) A 22-year-old right-handed semi-professional baseball player complains of right shoulder pain and progressive weakness. He denies any traumatic events. His exam is noted to have a normal "empty can" and "belly press" tests. Resisted external rotation with the arm at the side does exhibit weakness. His MRI images are shown in figure A and B. What is the most likely cause of his symptoms? Topic Review Topic
FIGURES: A   B        

1. Suprascapular nerve entrapment at the suprascapular notch
2. Suprascapular nerve entrapment at the spinoglenoid notch
3. Axillary nerve entrapment in the posterior triangle
4. Axillary nerve entrapment in the axillary pouch
5. Axillary nerve entrapment at near inferior neck of glenoid

PREFERRED RESPONSE ▶
TAG
(OBQ11.179) A 44-year-old male presents with a 2 month history of posterior shoulder pain. He is noted to have normal forward flexion and abduction strength and isolated weakness on shoulder external rotation. He has slight atrophy of his periscapular area. He has no numbness or paraesthesias. Which pathology would best explain his symptoms? Topic Review Topic

1. Cranial nerve XI palsy
2. Spinoglenoid notch cyst
3. Axillary nerve palsy
4. Suprascapular notch cyst
5. Parsonage-Turner Syndrome

PREFERRED RESPONSE ▶
TAG
(OBQ10.168) A 29-year-old male volleyball player presents with a one year history of right shoulder weakness and deep aching pain. He denies any history of trauma or prior shoulder problems. A clinical photograph and representative sagittal MRI image are shown in Figures A and B respectively. He is diagnosed with a ganglion cyst of the shoulder. Based on the images provided, where is the cyst located? Topic Review Topic
FIGURES: A   B        

1. Suprascapular notch
2. Spinoglenoid notch
3. Quadrangular space
4. Subscapular recess
5. Triangular interval

PREFERRED RESPONSE ▶
TAG
(OBQ07.107) A patient with shoulder pain and weakness has an MRI showing a cyst in the suprascapular notch. Which of the following muscles is most likely to show weakness? Topic Review Topic

1. Deltoid
2. Supraspinatus
3. Supraspinatus and infraspinatus
4. Infraspinatus
5. Teres minor

PREFERRED RESPONSE ▶
TAG
(OBQ05.15) A 21-year-old collegiate volleyball player is noted to have weakness in external rotation and isolated atrophy of the infraspinatus on physical examination as seen in Figure A. An axial MRI image is shown in Figure B. This clinical condition is most likely caused by compression of the: Topic Review Topic
FIGURES: A   B        

1. Axillary nerve at the triangular space
2. Suprascapular nerve in the suprascapular notch
3. Axillary nerve in the quadrangular space
4. Suprascapular nerve in the spinoglenoid notch
5. Long thoracic nerve anterior to the scalenus and the first rib and posterior to the clavicle

PREFERRED RESPONSE ▶
TAG
(OBQ05.202) A patient is scheduled to undergo arthroscopy for a SLAP tear of his shoulder. Based on the sagittal images of the right shoulder MRI shown in Figure A, what additional physical exam finding is the patient likely to display? Topic Review Topic
FIGURES: A          

1. Weakness in forward elevation
2. Weakness in internal rotation
3. Weakness in external rotation
4. Positive impingement maneuver
5. Scapular winging

PREFERRED RESPONSE ▶
TAG
(OBQ04.127) A 25-year-old volleyball player has recurrent right shoulder pain. On exam she has right shoulder weakness to external rotation with her arm at her side and atrophy below the scapular spine. There is no external rotation lag sign. Jobe drop arm and hornblower's tests are negative. The O'Brien's active compression test is positive. What will most likely be found on MRI of her shoulder? Topic Review Topic

1. Partial articular sided tear of the infraspinatus
2. Partial articular sided tear of the supraspinatus
3. Full thickness tear of the infraspinatus
4. Inferior labral tear with quadrangular space cyst
5. SLAP tear and spinoglenoid notch cyst

PREFERRED RESPONSE ▶
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